In the work programmes of Horizon 2020 (such as work programme 2016-2017) and the participant portal, topics are announced by the European Commission. For the most common type of project, at least 3 organizations from 3 different European Member States (MS) and/or Associated Countries to Horizon 2020 (AC) can apply to such calls. Japanese participants can in general only participate as a 3rd country partner in addition to those 3 countries and are not automatically eligible for funding, which means they usually need to find their own funding source (government or funding organizations). The consortium agreement needs to be signed by all participants after being selected.
However, in coordinated calls, Japanese funding organization(s) are already in agreement with the European Commission on specific research topics. Both Horizon 2020 and the Japanese funding organisation announce a call for proposals that align with the agreement. Japanese participants will submit a proposal to the Japanese funding organization in Japanese language and participants in Europe apply to the European Commission in English through the participant portal. After the joint evaluation, each funding organization will provide the funds to the participants. In order to connect the European and Japanese consortia, a coordination agreement (not consortium agreement in regular Horizon 2020 projects) should be submitted with the proposal for the Horizon 2020 call. For the Japanese side the way in which coordination agreement should be submitted might vary depending on the funding organization.